Editor’s Note: Due to insufficient attention to the social transformations amid its transition from planned economy to socialist market economy, China had to face the challenge of a series of social problems when celebrating its admirable achievements of economic development in the past decades, such as the enlargement of regional disparity, the tendency of social stratification, the deficiency of public services, and the inequality of social welfare, etc. These problems can also be clearly seen in the physical environment of cities, such as the spatial segregation of housing, the uneven distribution of public facilities, the unequal access to public services, and so on. Great efforts have been made to deal with these social problems after the “people-oriented” principle was put forward by the Central Government of China in 2003 as an important part of the Scientific View of Development. In the field of urban planning, these efforts include to promote social planning at macro level and to encourage community planning at micro level. In spite of that, social considerations should be further strengthened in urban planning so as to create a better living environment and a harmonious society at the same time.