Editor’s Note: In the past forty years after the reform and opening-up, China’s rapid urbanization mainly demonstrated a traditional development mode that is characterized by a continuous urban expansion in terms of both demographic growth and spatial development. It is also called as the urbanization of land because of the remarkable representation in physical environment by the construction of hundreds and thousands of new cities, new towns, new urban areas, and new development areas as well. Being greatly supported by public policies following the strong intention of governments, these large-scale new urban developments were often implemented through the top-down urban planning system for a high efficiency, without due attention to the public engagement and participation of local communities. The weakening of community governance along with the dissolution of Danwei communities also once made it difficult to implement public engagement and participation during the process of new urban development. However, at the same time, the housing reform of privatization and commercialization led to the rising awareness of private property right, which triggered the new demands of the public for community governance, regarding in particular housing property management and community public services. After the new urban community system was established in Chinese cities based on the traditional urban residents’ committee system at the beginning of the new millennium, community governance gradually caught more attention of the society, with more intention of the public to be engaged in and participate to community issues. The New Urbanization policy issued in 2014 which advocates a transition to a new development mode of human-oriented, quality-oriented, environment-friendly, inventory-based, and region-oriented urbanization further highlights the importance of community governance. In particular, the requirement of inventory-based urban development makes urban regeneration more significant for the future urban growth of Chinese cities, which undoubtedly relies on more than ever before the active public engagement and participation under the circumstance of private property right. This in turn becomes a big challenge to community governance, calling for innovative ideas and encouraging innovative practice. In recent years, community building has become a hot topic in Chinese cities, in both urban and rural areas, complementing the top-down urban planning system in a bottom-up way. A number of pioneering experiments have been conducted in some Chinese cities through the collaboration between the local governments of various levels and the professional teams from related fields, as well as different kinds of social organizations, such as the community planner system of Shanghai and Beijing and the community planning system of Chengdu.