The State Council Releases the Opinions Concerning Measures for Separation of Ownership, Contract Right, and Operation Right of Rural Land
On Oct. 30, 2016, the General Office of the Central Committee of CPC and the General Office of the State Council issued the Opinions Concerning Measures for Separation of Ownership, Contract Right, and Operation Right of Rural Land, and released a notice to require thorough implementation of the document by all regions and departments.
The Opinions pointed out that in order to deepen the reform of the rural land system and comply with farmers’ requirements for reserving their land contract right and operational right of transferring land, the land contract and operation right will be divided into contract right and operation right. Land ownership, contract right, and operation right (shortened as “three rights” in the following part) will be separated from each other, so as to promote agricultural modernization. It can be regarded as another major institutional innovation for rural reform since the adoption of a system of contracted responsibilities on the household basis with remuneration linked to output in China. The separation of “three rights” is a self-improvement of the basic operational system in the countryside, which follows the objective rule of a production relationship adapting to productivity development and demonstrates the long lasting vitality of the basic operational system in rural China. Moreover, it is in favor of a clear land ownership relation, which will better guarantee the benefits of the farmer collectives, contract farmer households, and operational main bodies. And it is also beneficial to the rational utilization of land resources, the establishment of a new type of agricultural system, the development of operations at appropriate scales in various forms, and the promotion of the land production rate, labor production rate, and resource utilization rate, which will further stimulate the development of modern agriculture.
What’s more, the Opinions requires a conscientious implementation by all related departments of the strategic arrangement made by the Central Committee of CPC and the State Council. The focus should be laid on the reform of the relationship between farmers and land, and a scientific definition of the connotation of “three rights.” The boundary of the rights, and their mutual relationships should be clarified. At the same time, a normalized and high-efficiency operational mechanism should be established, and the rural land ownership system highlighted by clear ownership, completed power and function division, smooth transfer procedure, and strict protection measures, should be improved continuously. And great efforts should be put into optimizing the land resource allocation, fostering new type of operational bodies, and stimulating the development of operations at appropriate scales, so as to further strengthen and improve the basic operation system in rural area and provide a sound foundation for developing modern agriculture, increasing farmers’ income, and constructing socialist new countryside.